題圖。

Shipping is an extremely efficient way to move bulk goods around the planet, but it's responsible for around 3% of global man-made carbon emissions, and the unique energy requirements of long-haul cargo ships make them extremely difficult to decarbonize.

航運是在地球上運輸大宗貨物的一種極為高效的方式,但它卻要為全球約3%的人為碳排放負責,而且長(cháng)途貨輪獨特的能源需求使其極難去碳化。

There are all manner of technological solutions in the pipeline: hydrogen, green ammonia and methanol powerplants, flettner rotors, heaving oscillators... There's even been a return to giant sail-wings, as well as giant autonomous kites designed to pull ships along and save fuel.

各種技術(shù)解決方案都在醞釀之中:氫能、綠氨和甲醇動(dòng)力裝置、弗萊特納轉子、起伏振蕩器……巨型帆翼和巨型自動(dòng)風(fēng)箏帆也在不斷出現,它們可以拉動(dòng)船只前進(jìn),節省燃料。

But that's what makes the Blue Visby Solution so fascinating; you don't have to alter the ships at all. You just pilot them differently.

但“藍色維斯比方案”的迷人之處在于,你根本不需要改裝船只。你只需以不同的方式驅使它們。
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Currently, according to the Blue Visby team, most cargo ships follow an operational practice known as "sail fast, then wait" (SFTW). That is, they go as quickly as they can from port A to port B, regardless of what the schedule's looking like at their destination. When they get there, they sit still and wait at idle, continuing to burn fuel, until it's time for them to dock and load/unload their cargo.

據藍色維斯比團隊介紹,目前,大多數貨輪都遵循一種被稱(chēng)為“快速航行,然后等待”(SFTW)的操作方法。也就是說(shuō),不管目的地的船期如何,貨輪都會(huì )以最快的速度從A港駛往B港。到達目的地后,它們就靜靜地等待,繼續燃燒燃料,一直等到靠岸和裝卸貨物的時(shí)間。



插圖:據估計,貨船有8%的時(shí)間停泊在港口外,因為它們到達港口的速度太快。

The Blue Visby Solution requires considerable connectivity, co-ordination and participation, from lots of different stakeholders, on a global scale – but where the rubber meets the road, it's incredibly simple. It simply tells the ships to slow down, so they arrive at port right on time.

藍色維斯比解決方案需要在全球范圍內與許多不同的利益相關(guān)者進(jìn)行大量的聯(lián)系、協(xié)調和參與--但在具體實(shí)踐方面,它卻簡(jiǎn)單得令人難以置信。它只需告訴船只放慢速度,讓它們準時(shí)到達港口。

Pushing all that bulk through the water at a slower speed cuts down hugely on hydrodynamic drag, so the engines burn considerably less fuel, with a corresponding drop in emissions. And the cargo delivery speed is totally unaffected; the ships still load and unload at exactly the same times.

以較低的速度推動(dòng)所有散裝貨物通過(guò)水面,可以大大減少水的阻力,因此發(fā)動(dòng)機燃燒的燃料也會(huì )大大減少,排放也相應降低。而貨物的運送速度則完全不受影響;船舶裝卸貨的時(shí)間仍然完全相同。



插圖:解決方案非常簡(jiǎn)單:減速,及時(shí)到達目的地,而不是燃燒額外的燃料加速,然后停泊。

How much of an efficiency gain are we talking here? The Blue Visby team studied the movements of 3,651 Panamax vessels taking 20,580 trips in 2022, and estimated these timing tweaks could cut emissions by a median rate of 23.2% without affecting customer outcomes.

我們所說(shuō)的效率提高有多大?藍色維斯比團隊研究了3651艘巴拿馬型船舶在2022年的20580次航行,估計這些航行的時(shí)間調整可以在不影響客戶(hù)結果的情況下將排放量減少23.2%。

Others have run the numbers on broader samples; Ship Nerd News reports on a study from Blue Visby Consortium member NAPA, which looked at 150,000 voyages from 13,000 cargo ships in 2019. The study found that 87% of voyages could reduce their speed, by an average of just 1 knot, and meet all their deadlines while reducing emissions by 16%. Not as much as the Panamax study, but it would still be a colossal contribution.

其他研究人員對更廣泛的樣本進(jìn)行了計算;《船舶迷新聞》報道了藍色維斯比聯(lián)盟成員,芬蘭海事軟件公司納帕的一項研究,該研究調查了2019年13000艘貨船的150000次航行。研究發(fā)現,87%的航程可以降低航速,平均僅降低1節,并在減少16%排放量的同時(shí)滿(mǎn)足所有期限的要求。雖然不如巴拿馬型貨輪的研究結果,但這仍將是一個(gè)巨大的貢獻。

Now, the first sea trials are complete. Two bulk carriers, the M/V Gerdt Oldendorff and the M/V Begonia, deployed "all components of the Blue Visby Solution" including software, technical and operational systems, on voyages to Australia. The former recorded an estimated CO2 reduction of 28.2% against its standard SFTW speeds. The latter managed 12.9%, for an average of 17.3%.

現在,首次海上試驗已經(jīng)完成。兩艘散貨船--M/V Gerdt Oldendorff號和M/V Begonia號在前往澳大利亞的航程中部署了“藍色維斯比解決方案的所有組件”,包括軟件、技術(shù)和操作系統。與標準SFTW速度相比,前者的二氧化碳排放量估計減少了28.2%。后者減少了12.9%,平均減少17.3%。

That's a considerably larger affect than you'd get out of some of these huge sail systems, without modifying the ship at all. And from a scheduling tweak!

在不對船舶進(jìn)行任何改動(dòng)的情況下,這比使用某些大型風(fēng)帆系統所產(chǎn)生的影響要大得多。而這一切都源于調度上的調整!

These initial results are incredibly promising, but eliminating SFTW thinking from the global shipping trade is no small task; according to Marine Log it's a practice that dates back to the age of sail. It's embedded in hard-fought, long-term contracts between shipping companies, customers, ports, dockworkers and all the many dependent services that plug into global logistics, sometimes with incentives.

這些初步結果令人難以置信,但要在全球航運業(yè)中消除SFTW思維并非易事;據《航海日志》稱(chēng),這種做法可以追溯到風(fēng)帆時(shí)代。它根植于航運公司、客戶(hù)、港口、碼頭工人和所有與全球物流息息相關(guān)的服務(wù)部門(mén)之間艱苦奮斗的長(cháng)期合同中,有時(shí)還有激勵措施。

And herein lies another nugget of Blue Visby genius; the consortium has created a contractual architecture built around a multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism that allows ship owners, charterers and cargo interests to share the costs (such as costs related to a longer ocean passage), and also the benefits (like fuel savings and any financial value attached to emissions reduction). It's an attempt to make the system a win-win-win situation, and to incentivize participation by all parties. The first sea trial also ran a test on this benefit-sharing system.

“藍色維斯比”的另一個(gè)天才之處就在于此;該聯(lián)盟圍繞多邊利益共享機制創(chuàng )建了一個(gè)合同架構,允許船東、承租人和貨主共享成本(如與更長(cháng)的遠洋航程相關(guān)的成本)和利益(如節省燃料和減排所帶來(lái)的任何經(jīng)濟價(jià)值)。這是使該系統實(shí)現三贏(yíng)局面的一種嘗試,也是對參與者各方的一種激勵。首次海試也對這一利益共享系統進(jìn)行了測試。
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插圖:藍色維斯比系統激勵所有相關(guān)方參與,包括船東、運營(yíng)商、港口和客戶(hù)。

Apart from reducing fuel burn and emissions, saving money and staying on time, there are other benefits; avoiding extended waiting periods at anchor reduces hull fouling, further improving efficiency over time. It improves the air quality outside ports, and the speed reduction at sea reduces underwater noise pollution as well as the risk of whale strike.

除了減少燃料消耗和廢氣排放、節省開(kāi)支和準時(shí)到港外,還有其他好處:避免長(cháng)時(shí)間錨泊等待,減少船體污垢,隨著(zhù)時(shí)間的推移進(jìn)一步提高效率。它改善了港口外的空氣質(zhì)量,海上減速減少了水下噪音污染和鯨魚(yú)撞擊的風(fēng)險。

It certainly looks like a head-slappingly obvious win for most parties involved, as well as for the planet. And it's a solution whose benefits will continue to accrue as other decarbonization technologies take hold; green fuels will likely be more expensive, and range will be an issue, so sailing slower will save more money and open up additional useful range as and when clean cargo shipping gets up and running.

對于大多數相關(guān)方以及地球來(lái)說(shuō),這無(wú)疑是一個(gè)令人拍手叫好的明顯的贏(yíng)家。隨著(zhù)其他去碳化技術(shù)的發(fā)展,這一解決方案的益處也將不斷累積;綠色燃料可能會(huì )更加昂貴,續航能力也將成為一個(gè)問(wèn)題,因此,當清潔貨運開(kāi)始運行時(shí),慢速航行將節省更多資金,并開(kāi)辟出更多有用的航程。
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“Decarbonization is unattainable without energy efficiency, and energy efficiency is impossible if ships continue to Sail Fast Then Wait," state Blue Visby Consortium co-ordinators Haris Zografakis and Pekka Pakkanen in a press release. "The CBH Prototype Trials demonstrate that the Blue Visby Solution will be a central element of any successful decarbonization strategy for all maritime stakeholders: shipowners, charterers, traders, cargo interests, terminals and ports.”

藍色維斯比聯(lián)盟協(xié)調人哈里斯-佐格拉菲基斯和佩卡-帕卡寧在一份新聞稿中指出:“如果不提高能源效率,就無(wú)法實(shí)現去碳化,而如果船舶繼續‘快速航行,然后等待’,就不可能提高能源效率?!盋BH集團的原型試驗表明,藍色維斯比解決方案將成為所有海運利益相關(guān)者(船東、租船人、貿易商、貨物利益相關(guān)者、碼頭和港口)成功的去碳化戰略的核心要素。

"We are very excited to see the results of the first Prototype Trials, conducted with invaluable support from Consortium member, CBH Group," says CEO Christian Wounlund. "All components of the Blue Visby Solution were tested: contracts, software, operations, and the benefit sharing mechanism. While both the Virtual Pilot Program and the Prototype Trials will continue in the coming months, we are on track for commercial deployment this year."

首席執行官克里斯蒂安-沃倫德說(shuō):“我們非常高興地看到在聯(lián)盟成員CBH集團的寶貴支持下進(jìn)行的首次原型試驗的結果。藍色維斯比解決方案的所有組成部分都經(jīng)過(guò)了測試:合同、軟件、運營(yíng)和利益共享機制。虛擬試點(diǎn)計劃和原型試驗將在未來(lái)幾個(gè)月內繼續進(jìn)行,我們將在今年實(shí)現商業(yè)部署?!?br />